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ВАРИАНТ № 2
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Macaroni is made, as a rule, from semolina or farina. Some of the best macaroni products are made entirely from farina, though many of the macaroni manufacturers look upon semolina as the raw material "par excellence" for the production of the highest-grade macaroni, spaghetti, and vermicelli.
Many macaroni manufacturers at a distance from the semolina milling centres are obliged to use considerable flour, as the freight rate on semolina makes its use prohibitive. Some manufacturers, for example, use flour of different grades, for example, straight and/or cut-offs, made from Bluestem wheat, either as such or blended with semolina; others use farina or semolina without any admixture of flour.
Some manufacturers use a 95% hard winter flour instead of semolina.
In general, 100 pounds of flour will make 94 pounds of marketable macaroni products; from 1% to 2% of the macaroni is wasted in the process of manufacture. There is also a loss of about 4% which is largely due to the difference in moisture content of macaroni and the raw material.
The first step in the manufacture of macaroni is the doughing process. For every 100 pounds of semolina or farina some 26 to 30 pounds of water ranging in temperature from 70° to 140° F. are used.
The quantity of water varies with the kind of product to be made and the nature of the raw material, less water being used for vermicelli than for macaroni. No other ingredients (except occasionally a small percentage of salt) are used. After being mixed for 10 to 20 minutes, at a temperature of about 104° F., the smooth, firm dough is transferred to a kneading machine or "Gramola".
The modern kneading machine consists of a revolving circular steel pan 8 feet in diameter, carrying two revolving, corrugated, conical iron workers weighing as much as 3 1/2 tons each. In operation it is similar to a butter worker.
The dough is kneaded for 10 to 20 minutes to thoroughly incorporate the water with the semolina or farina and to produce a uniform, smooth, stiff dough.
When thoroughly kneaded, the dough may be either transferred direct to the press or rolled into sheets, folded into cylinder or cartridge form, and then transferred to the press, which is maintained at a temperature of about 104° F. to keep the dough plastic.
In the vertical press at the bottom of the cylinder is placed a horizontal die or perforated plate, called "trafila". The holes in the die for making macaroni vary in size according to the type to be made. Each hole has a small steel rod or pin in the centre, which forms the hole in the macaroni. While the dough is divided by the supports of the pin as it enters the die, the tremendous pressure, from 2,500 to 5,000 pounds per square inch, reunites it, and it emerges from the other end of the perforated plate as a perfect tube. The die used in making spaghetti, or solid rod-like macaroni products, has smaller holes without pins.
In general, long-cut macaroni is made in vertical presses, the macaroni being cut by hand into 3-foot lengths and bent over wooden rods for drying.
Horizontal processes are more used in the manufacture of elbows and other short-cut macaroni products. A revolving knife cuts the macaroni at the outer face of the die, the speed of the knives determining the length of the product.
When making products in the shape of animals, alphabets, seeds, stars, etc., dies having these forms are used. The dough is rolled thin and then the figures are stamped out just as is done in the manufacture of crackers.
The drying of macaroni requires the most expert skill and judgment. It is the most important, the most difficult, and the most delicate operation in the whole process of the manufacture of macaroni products, and upon it largely depends the quality of the finished product.
In Italy macaroni is often dried in the sunshine, in the open air, especially when the product is made in the small plants. Generally, a preliminary drying of about 2 hours duration is necessary to prevent souring and to keep to short-cut products from sticking together. Very soon after the paste emerges from the die or "trafila" and while still warm, there is formed a crust upon the surface. This superficial drying or hardening is arrested and eliminated by placing the product in a closed humid cabinet or room. As a result of this treatment the moisture content tends to become flexible again, i. e. it "comes back". This process of "hardening or drying" and of "coming back or becoming again flexible" is carried on alternately. The paste is then removed from the damp room and allowed to dry completely in the open air under Italy's sunny skies. After the macaroni is thoroughly dried in the open air it is transferred to a closed but well ventilated room .where it is allowed to "rest" for several hours, after which it is again placed in the open air for 5 or 6 hours and once more allowed to "rest". It is then ready to be packed. Open air drying requires, therefore, considerable supervision. It is generally believed that during the first day a sort of fermentation takes place which produces the much desired flavour.
When the weather does not allow the macaroni to be dried in the open, the alternate "hardening" and "softening" is conducted in specially constructed ventilated cabinets in which the drying is completed. The alternate "drying" and "resting" is for the purpose of preventing warping, as the outer part of the macaroni dries faster than the inner portion.
Although out-of-doors drying is now considered unhygienic and obsolete as it exposes the product to all kind of germ-laden dust, it should be remembered that no macaroni is eaten raw.
2 Переведите на русский язык следующие английские словосочетания:
1) the best macaroni products; 6) according to the type to;
2) the macaroni manufacturers; 7) long-cut macaroni;
3) marketable macaroni products; 8) dried in the sunshine;
4) the modern kneading machine; 9) a closed humid cabinet;
5) the semolina or farina; 10) process of "hardening or drying".
3 Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:
1) производство макарон; 6) содержание влаги;
2) негигиеничный и обветшалый; 7) производители макарон;
3) различные сорта; 8) на открытом воздухе;
4) дно цилиндра; 9) вентиляционные помещения;
5) влажное помещение; 10) предотвратить деформацию;
4 Найдите в тексте слова, имеющие общий корень с данными словами. Определите, к какой части речи они относятся, и переведите их на русский язык:
Manufacture, product, high, market, make, fast, hard, place, prevent, treat.
5 Задайте к, выделенному в тексте, предложению все типы вопросов: общий, альтернативный, разделительный, два специальных: а) к подлежащему, б) к любому члену предложения.
6 Выполните анализ данных предложений, обратив внимание на следующие грамматические явления: числительные; времена группы Continuous (Present, Past, Future Active & Passive); усилительная конструкция; времена группы Perfect (Present, Past, Future Active & Passive); функции глаголов to be, to have; согласование времен; неопределенные местоимения some, any, no и их производные.
1) Macaroni is made, as a rule, from semolina or farina.
2) Some of the best macaroni products are made entirely from farina.
3) In general, 100 pounds of flour will make 94 pounds of marketable macaroni products; from 1% to 2% of the macaroni is wasted in the process of manufacture.
4) The modern kneading machine consists of a revolving circular steel pan 8 feet in diameter, carrying two revolving, corrugated, conical iron workers weighing as much as 3 1/2 tons each.
5) When the weather does not allow the macaroni to be dried in the open, the alternate "hardening" and "softening" is conducted in specially constructed ventilated cabinets in which the drying is completed.
6) The article said, that long-cut macaroni was made in vertical presses, the macaroni being cut by hand into 3-foot lengths and bent over wooden rods for drying.
7 Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:
1) What is macaroni made, as a rule, from?
2) Why do many of the macaroni manufacturers look upon semolina?
3) Why are many macaroni manufacturers at a distance from the semolina milling centres obliged to use considerable flour?
4) What kind of flour do some manufacturers use?
5) What is the first step in the manufacture of macaroni?
6) What do the modern kneading machine consists of?
7) What kind of process is carried on alternately?