Criminology is a social science dealing with the nature, extent, and causes of crime; the characteristics of criminals and their organizations; the problems of apprehending and convicting offenders; the operation of prisons and other correctional institutions; the rehabilitation of convicts both in and out of prison; and the prevention of crime.
The science of criminology has two basic objectives: to determine the causes, whether personal or social, of criminal behavior and to evolve valid principles for the social control of crime. In pursuing these objectives, criminology draws on the finding of biology, psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology, and related fields.
Criminology originated in the late 18th century when various movements began to question the humanity and efficiency of using punishment for retribution rather than deterrence and reform. There arose as a consequence what is called the classical school of criminology, which aimed to mitigate legal penalties and humanize penal institutions. During the 19th century the positivist school attempted to extend scientific neutrality to the understanding of crime. Because they held that criminals were shaped by their environment, positivists emphasized case studies and rehabilitative measures. A later school, the “social defence” movement, stressed the importance of balance between the rights of criminals and the rights of society.
Criminology has many practical applications. Its findings can give lawyers, judges, and prison officials a better understanding of criminals, which may lead to more effective treatment. Criminological research can be used by legislators and in the reform of laws and of penal institutions.
Answer the following questions to the text in the written form.
1. What steps can society take to cope with crime?
2.What trends can be observed in the development of criminology?
3.What methods and techniques are applied in criminology?
4.In what other spheres of life can criminology find useful application?
1.3 Find in the text the English equivalents for the following words and expressions:
1.криминология рассматривает природу и причины преступлений
2.изучение обстоятельств правонарушения по материалам дела
3.криминология опирается на открытия других наук
4.проблемы задержания преступников
5.проблемы предотвращения преступлений
1)Выберите правильный вариант
Future Simple Passive voice образуется при помощи вспомогательного глагола:
A) Will, Shall be.
B) Was, Were.
C) Am, Is, Are
D) Will, Shall.
2) Выберите правильный вариант
This house …last year.
A) Were built.
B) Will be built.
C) Was Built.
3)Выберите правильный вариант
The article … just published
B) Has been
C) Have been
D) Will be
4)Выберите правильный вариант
He … often …abroad
B) are send
C) Have been sent
D) will sent.
1. She had better _____ apply for this job.
2. I can ____ walk your dog this week.
3. He will ___ watch TV this weekends.
4. Let me___ help you with your homework.
5. Jesse made her son ____ eat the porridge.
6. We would like ___ try this famous bottle of wine.
7. Would you like ____ know about that article?
8. Would you like ____ try our new dish?
9. I would like ____ some juice.
10. He did not want___ play tennis any more.
Choose the correct preposition
1) What`s wrong …Henry? He looks tired.
A) About B)With C)Of D) In
2)He is proud …his son`s achievements
A) At B) On C) Of D)About.
3) There is wonderful collection …Paintings in the Tretyakov Gallery.
A)In B) For C) Of D) With.
4)John is not interested …politics.
A) About B) In C) For D) Over
5)The novel is written …a well-known English writer.
A) With B) Of C) BY D) At
Мінімізація довгострокових середніх витрат.