Word-structure and word-formation
A lot of words in English have a composite nature and are made up of smaller units each having sound form and meaning.These smaller units are called morphemes.Eg.: teach-er, help-less-ness, sports-man.
Like a word, a morpheme is an association of a certain meaning with a certain sound-pattern. But unlike a word, a morpheme is not an autonomous unit and can occur in speech only as a constituent part of the word. Eg.: anti-inflammatory.
Semanticallymorphemes are classified into root morphemesand afflxational morphemes.Root morphemes are lexical centres of the words, the basic constituent parts of the words. Eg.: weak-ness teach-er common-ly.
Afflxational morphemesare prefixes and suffixes; they have a generalized lexical meaning and part-of-speech meaning: dis-comfort, re-read, beauty-ful,occurence.
Structurallymorphemes are divided into free, bound and semibound. Freemorphemes coincide with the stem, roots: day, week, friend. Boundmorphemes prefixes and suffixes, they are never used separately, but only as constituent parts of words: dis-, re-, ful-, -less etc. Semibound(semi-free) morphemes can function both as an affix and as a free morpheme. Eg. halfpast three, half-done; to do well, well-done.
Language is never stable: it undergoes changes on all its levels: phonetic, morphological, lexical, phraseological, etc.
As for some morphemes, in the course of time they may become fused to gether with the root, some root-morphemes may become affixes, polymorphic words may become monomorphic, compound words may become simple words. Eg.: hus-bond-a = хозяин, владелец дома —> husband - муж
wif-man = жена мужа —» woman - женщина The Latin term "-itis" means "inflammation" —» appendicitis.
There are different ways of forming words. Word-formation is the process of creating new words from the material available in the language after certain structural and semantic formulas and patterns.
There are productive and non-productive ways of word-formation. Productive ways are widely used to form a lot of new words. Non-productive ones are not used now to form new words, they are retained in a number of old words.
Productive ways of word-formation are:
3. Word-building: affixation
Affixation i§ the formation of new words by adding derivational affixes to different types of stems.
|1. Prefixation is mostly typical of verb formation to re-write, to defrost, to mal-treat 2.Prefixes change the lexical||1. Suffixation is mostly characteristic of noun and adjective formation 2. Suffixes also change the lexical meaning of words: helpless|
|meaning of the stem (write - re-||3. The majority of suffixes change the|
|write)||part of speech formed: mother-less, to|
|3. Only someprefixes changethe||black-en|
|part of speech formed: to de-bus, to|
|en-train, to em-bronze||Only somesuffixes do not change|
|part of speech: brown-brownish|
|child-childhood. They transfer a word|
|into another semantic group (from|
|concrete to abstract): friend-|
3.1. Word-building: prefixation
Prefixation is the formation of words with the help of prefixes. The^nay be classified into several groups on different principles: according to their origin, meaning, function and to the part of speech formed.
|be - beset||1) Latin:|
|mis - mislead, mismatch||in - (im -) impossible|
|un - unable||contra - contralateral is|
|out - outlet||intra - intravenous|
|over - overall, overrun||inter - intercostal|
|under - underground||dis - disseminate|
|after - afterthought||re-, retro - retrospective|
|con - contract|
|post - postnatal|
|ab - abductor|
|ad - adductor des-, de-, se - desinfection 2) Greek: dys - dysuria hyper - hyperactivity a - (an -) anaesthesia para - paradontosis anti - antiinflammatory endo - endocarditis meta - metastasis epi - epigastrium meso - mesoderma syn - (sym -) synergia en - (em -) encephalitis peri - periarteritis ecto -, exo - exophthalmus|
In the course of time English has adopted a great number of prefixes from foreign languages, not separately, but as constituent parts of borrowed words.
Quite a number of borrowed prefixes have become of international meaning: extra-, sub-, inter-, anti-, counter-, super-, etc.
Synchronic classifications of prefixesare classifications according to the meaning, to the part of speech formed, to stylistic reference and according to productivity. The first 2 are of greatest importance for translation of medical text.
Classification of prefixes according to the meaning 1) Negative prefixes:
un - unusual, unexpected, unknown, untreatable, uncurable
mis - mifortunes, misunderstand, misuse
non - non-surgical, non-steroidal
in - indigestion, invaluable
il - illiterate ir- irregular
im- impossible, immobile, imbalance
dis - discoloration, disability, discomfort, distemper
mal - malpractice
a - abnormal, amoral
anti - antibody
2) Reversative prefixes :un - unfasten
de - deform dis - disconnect
3) Prefixes of time and order:fore - foretell
pre - prewar, pre-term birth
post - postsurgical
ex - expresident, ex-smoker
4) Prefix of repetition:
re - reappear, recurrent, recurrence, reread, recreation, reconsider, re-occur
5) Locative prefixes:
super - supersonic sub - subway
inter - international, interpersonal, intermittent trans - transatlantic
over - overdose, overleaf, overweight, overlap
6) Prefix, denoting mutual action:
со - coeducation, cooperation, coordinate