“Ukraine’s Economy and Its Dynamic Progress”
1. A new independent state with a thousand-year-old history appeared on the map of the world. To have an idea of Ukraine’s economic potential, its resources, and definethe scale of reforms which must be carried out let us get acquainted with some objective data. Ukraine is situated in the geographical centre of Europe. The country occupies a territory of 603,700 square kilometres.
2. It's population is 46 million, more than 74 per cent of whom are Ukrainians. For comparison, the population of Germany is 79.7 million people, Great Britain — 57, Poland — 39, Finland — 5. Ten million ethnic Ukrainians live outside the country on the territories of the former Soviet Union, and close to 5 million live in other foreign countries. The Diaspora is the strongest in Canada and the USA. There are six cities in Ukraine with a population over one million. Occupying 0.45 per cent of all earth's surface and being populated by 0.8 per cent of all earth's dwellers, Ukraine produces almost 5 per cent of the world output.
3. Ukraine is the first in Europe in iron ore extraction, production of steel,
cast iron, tractors, mineral fertilizers, sugar, and grain; the second in coal mining, and the third in producing concrete, electric energy and various equipment.
4. In the south the country has access to the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov
which are connected with the ocean. Twenty-seven thousand kilometres of
railroads intertwine throughout the territory of Ukraine (in Sweden — 12,
France —35, Spain —20).
5. In 1991—1995, two interrelated processes were characteristic of Ukraine's economy, namely its assertion as that of independent state, and its transformation from planned-centralized to market-controlled.
6. These processes follow a complicated, often winding course, but there are all the prerequisites for then effective accomplishment.
7. Historically the following two factors determined the development of Ukrainian lands: firstly, the presence of fertile chernozem soils, and, secondly, remarkably convenient geographical location on the crossroads of international trade routes.
8. The export-import structure was also characteristic of the state formation existing in the current Ukrainian territories. At the same time the development of plow farming, ferrous metallurgy and crafts led to an upsurge of such contacts between Rus’-Ukraine and other countries. Ukraine turned into Europe's "granary." The Ukrainian agrarian "gubernias" began to transform as agrarian-industrial regions only in the second half of the 19th century. The Donetsk Coal Basin (Donbas) and the Kryvyi Rih Iron Ore Basin became Russia's leading industrial venues.
9. Present-day independent Ukraine has a considerable potential to quickly develop its economy — and this is explained not only by favourable natural conditions, but also by the convenient geographical position in terms of international trade exchanges.
10. In Donbas the coal deposits are estimated at 2,000,000,000 tons. Some 4.2 billion ton of hydrogenous (brown) coal are to be found in the Dnieper Basin.
11. Ukraine's iron and manganese ore deposits are considered the richest in the world — primary in the Kryvyi Rih Basin (up to 62% of pure iron) and the Nikopol Basin. There are also considerable reserves of titanium, nickel, chrome, mercury and other rare metals.
12. The non-ore deposits are quite variegated (for instance, sulphur, phosphorites, potash salts, refractories, flux, granite, marble, porcelain, clay, chalk, etc.).
13. Still, the oil and gas deposits of Sub-Carpathia (Prykarpattya) and Left-Bank Ukraine cannot satisfy their own needs in these energy resources.
14. Ukraine's labour pool amounts to 29.6 million persons, of whom 22.4 mil
lion are employed in the national economy, including 6.4 million in the industries, 4.6 million in agriculture and forestry, 1.7 million in construction,
1.6 million in transport and communications, and 6.6 million in the communal sphere, medicine and public education.
Notes to the text:
to get acquainted [ә'kweintid] with smth. — знайомитись, ознайомитись з чимось
iron ore extraction — добуток залізної руди
transformation from planned-centralized to market-controlled — трансформація
(перехід) від планово-централізованої до ринково-регулюючої
fertile chernozem soils — родючий чорноземний грунт
Europe’s “granary” — “житниця” Європи
Основные этапы развития денег. Бумажные деньги