Cultural Differences in Body Language

Dr. Collett says that if we compare the way differ­ent European nations use gestures, they fall into three major groups. The Nordic nations belong to the first group. These are the Swedes, Finns, Norwegians, and Danes. They use gestures very little. The second group, which includes the British, Germans, Dutch, Belgians, and Russians, use some gestures when they are excited, or want to communicate over long distances, or insult each other. The third group use gestures a lot, to emphasize what they are saying, or to hold the other person's at­tention. They are the Italians, Greeks, French, Spanish, and Portuguese.

The distance that separates one person from anoth­er — "personal space" — also varies between people of different nationalities. What is right for one nationality may be uncomfortable for another. People stand close enough to touch each other easily in such countries as France, Spain, Greece, and Italy. British zoologist, Des­mond Morris calls this the "elbow zone". In the countries of East Europe such as Hungary, Poland, and Romania, people stand a "wrist zone", that is a little more distant. They are close enough to touch wrists. But in the Scandi­navian countries, in Britain, Holland, Belgium, and Ger­many, people stand further away from each other — the "finger tips zone".

Answer the questions.

1. Which nationalities in Europe usually use a lot of gestures when they speak?

2. Which nationalities in Europe usually use very few gestures when they speak?

3. What is a "personal space"?

4. Why does a north European move away form the person he is talking to?

5. Which nationalities move closer to the person they are talking to? Why?

6. Which nationalities stand a "wrist zone"?

Adjective A person who...
A efficient arrives on time
В sociable isn't rude
С punctual enjoys the company of other people
D agreeable always tells the truth
E honest adapts successfully to various situations
F patient really means what he or she says
G polite waits without getting angry
H ambitious doesn't waste time and works well
I sincere is pleasant and friendly
J flexible wants to succeed

Text 3

At McDonald’s

McDonald’s is a joint Russian-Canadian restaurant which was opened on the 31st of January, 1990. It is situated in Pushkin Square in the centre of Moscow. The seating capacity of the hail is seven hundred seats. Coming into the restaurant hall you go to the main counter, get the illustrated menu-card and a girl (or a young man) recommends you dishes, beverages, milk cocktails and dessert. You make your choice, pay the money, take the tray with your dishes, beverages, dessert and occupy any vacant table. The service is quick and excellent. The quality is first-class! What’s on the, menu? For a snack you can have "Big-Mac"-minced beefsteak made from plain beef, sliced lettuce latuk, brown onions, a slice of cheese and pickled cucumbers. All this is placed in a bun. Fillet of fish-delicious white fillet of Atlantic cod in dried bread. Single or double hamburger made from plain beef: slices of pickled cucumbers and brown onions, single or double cheeseburger also made from, plain beef of high grade quality, slices of cheese and pickled cucumbers.

We're at McDonald's. What have you ordered for your meal? We've ordered Big Mac, fried potatoes, an apple pie, ice - cream and tea.

For a drink you can order cooling beverages - Coca-Cola, "Coca-Cola Light (made without sugar for diabetics), "Spright" and "Fanta". There are milk cocktails, thick and nourishing, with chocolate, strawberry and vanilla syrup. If you like you can have dinner consisting of "Big Mac", fried crisp potatoes and refreshing beverage. For a change you can have double cheeseburger or if you care for fish - fillet of fish. For dessert you can taste "Sunday". Ifs a soft ice-cream poured with hot chocolate, hot caramel or cooling straw-berry syrup. There is also tea and delicious apple pies. Welcome to McDonald's!

Text 4

Marketing

Marketing concept includes various elements such as planning, research, new product development, sales, communications, advertising, etc. Marketing starts with production and later studies all its stages before, during and after production. In the sales area, marketing provides information about forward demand for the company's products or services, helps to find and promote demand for products and services.

Marketing planning is an integral part of the marketing mix and it depends on a thorough situation analysis.

When the situation is analyzed it is necessary to consider con­trollable and uncontrollable factors. The controllable ones are four: product, price, place and promotion. Uncontrollable factors are mainly environmental factors.

Text 5

What is a Manager?

A number of different terms are used for "manager", including "director", "administrator" and "president". The term "manager" is used more frequently in profit-making organizations, while the others are used more widely in government and non-profit orga­nizations such as universities, hospitals and social work agencies.

What, then, is a manager?

When used collectively the term "management" refers to those people who are responsible for making and carrying out de­cisions within the system.

An individual manager is a person who directly supervises people in an organization.

Some basic characteristics seem to apply to managers in all types of organizations; they include hard work on a variety of acti­vities, preference for active tasks, direct personal relationships.

Almost everything a manager does involves decisions. The reason for making a decision is that a problem exists. In decision-making there is always some uncertainty and risk.

Managing is a hard job. There is a lot to be done and relatively little time to do it. The engineer can finish a design on a particular day, and the lawyer can win or lose a case at a certain time. But the manager's job is like "Old Man River" – it just keeps going.

Text 6

World Exhibitions

The first world industrial exhibition was held in London in 1851. It was a great success. It displayed exhibits of 40 participating nations and the number of visitors reached over six million.

Since then world industrial expositions have had a colourful history. Many such events have been held, some of them on a large scale. They have changed not only in size and scope, but also in character and overall purpose. Such events provided opportunities for exchanging scientific, technological and cultural achievements of the people of Europe, America, Australia, Asia and Africa.

Beginning with the early 60s, international expositions began to take new forms, trying to emphasize not only technological progress, but also other aspects of life. They became festivals of industry and culture.

Fairs and exhibitions provide an opportunity to establish profitable contacts and promote mutual understanding among different nations.

The former Soviet Union has been host to a growing number of international exhibitions. They were sponsored by the USSR Chamber of Commerce and Industry.

The first international exhibition in our country was held in Moscow in 1964. Since then exhibitions have been held in other cities as well and their number has increased to a great extent. However, traditionally, Moscow is still the centre of such events.

Even in ancient Russia this city, which is conveniently located on a river, always attracted thousands of traders. The Fair in those days was a highly festive occasion with colourful crowds filling the streets and much merry-making. On such days the streets were packed with traders, many of whom arrived from far-away places. Moscow has always been famous for its hospitality. Today Moscow is a regular meeting place of traders from different countries. The trade partners participating for many years in the international exhibitions which are held in Moscow and other cities of the Soviet Union appreciate the amicable atmosphere and business-like spirit of the commercial negotiations at these events.

Text 7

Claims

In ideal business conditions everything should be done care­fully – details of offers and orders checked, manufacture of the goods carried out properly, packing and marking verified.

However in spite of every possible care and attention that is given to contracts letters of complaint happen to arrive rather frequently because of various infringements.

There are various reasons for complaints. The following kinds of claims are often made by Buyers:

1) claims arising from the delivery of wrong goods, damaged goods or substandard goods:

2) claims connected with delays of one kind or another;

3) claims owing to goods missing from delivery (i.e. short - shipment or short-delivery);

4) claims that concern errors in carrying out an order, These may be caused by mis-typing of figures, mis-reading of numbers, misdirection of goods, wrong packing and so" on. Sellers most frequently make claims on Buyers because of default of payment.

As a rule a customer will not complain unless he has a good reason. If the customer's complaint is well-grounded, the settlement is comparatively easy the error will be admitted and the responsible party will meet the claim fully or partly. In other words, the dissatisfied party will get full or partial compensation for the losses which they suffered. Thus the matter is settled amicably.

Much more difficult is the case where the customer's complaint is not justified. It would be wrong policy to reject the claim off-hand.

The responsible party must carefully explain why the claim is declined and try to persuade the dissatisfied party to withdraw the claim.

Settling commercial disputes by arbitration is practiced if the parties in dispute cannot reach mutual understanding. In this case the parties may refer the matter to the Foreign Trade Arbitration Commission at the Russian Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Moscow. Then the case is heard before a tribunal comprising three arbitrators. The award is made by a majority vote.

The award of the Arbitration Commission is final and binding upon both parties. It is not subject to appeal.

Text 8

Discussing the Guarantee Period

Borisov studied the offer and the leaflets very closely. He thought that the technical characteristics of the LS 8 pump would suit their customers.

He got in touch with Mr. Parks and visited his office. During their talk they discussed some technical matters.

Today they are meeting at the Russian Trade Delegation.

Borisov: Good morning, Mr. Parks. Very glad to see you again.

Parks: Good morning, Mr. Borisov. What terrible weather we are having!

Borisov: Yes, it has been raining since early morning though the radio didn't say it would rain today.

Parks: I hope it will clear up by the evening.

Borisov: Perhaps it will. Mr. Parks, the matter I'd like to bring up today is the guarantee period. I know it is 12 months from the date of putting the pumps into operation, but not more than 18 months from the delivery date.

Parks: That's right.

Borisov: Well, I find it rather short. We'd like it to be extended by two and three months respectively, as the usual guarantee period for this type of equipment is longer.

Borisov: I see. But, Mr. Parks, I believe the contract will specify that if any defects are found during the guarantee period you are to correct them promptly and at your expense.

Parks: Yes, this is our usual obligation, but of course we do that only if we are responsible for the defects, not if they appear through your fault.

Borisov: This seems reasonable. Let's consider one more possibility. Suppose we would like some faulty parts to be replaced, on what terms will you deliver the replacements?

Parks: We'll try to supply them immediately and pay the cost of their insurance and transport. Will that suit you?

Borisov: Quite.

Parks: By the way, if you want special service visits of our engineer to be arranged after the guarantee period, we can always do that.

Borisov: Shall we have to pay for such visits?

Parks: Yes. You should authorize such visits and pay the engineer's fare to and in Russia, hotel expenses and the cost of each job he will do.

Borisov: Thank you. I'll have to look into the matter. Could we meet on Thursday, say, at 12?

Parks: Let's make it 2 if you don't mind. I have an appointment at 12, which I don't want to break.

Borisov: Very good.

Text 9

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