You know the word "ag" (eg), meaning "at", and you have learned how it combines with "me, you", etc., to form "agam, agat" and so on.

Other Irish prepositions change similarly. One of these is "le" (le), meaning "with". Here are some examples of "le" with names and nouns that don't have "the" before them: le Seán; le Nóra; le fear, with a man; le bróg, with a shoe.

"Le" does not cause aspiration or eclipsis. The name or noun (without "the") is merely added. To say "with me, with you," etc. these are the forms:

liom (luhm) with me

leat (lat) with you

leis (lesh) with him

léi (lay*) with her

linn (lin) with us

libh (liv) with you (pl)

leo (loh) with them

Pronounce these with a slender "l" (see Lesson 27). Do not make an audible (y) sound; say (luhm), not (lyuhm).

If you want to say "with the man", or "with the book", the form is: leis an bhfear (lesh un var), with the man; leis an leabhar (lesh un LOU-wuhr) with the book. Eclipsis often occurs, and here are examples of it:

leis an mbád (lesh un maw*d) with the boat

leis an gcarr (lesh un gahr) with the car

leis an ndoras (lesh un NUH-ruhs) with the door

leis an bhfeirm (lesh un VER-im) with the farm

leis an ngairdín (lesh uhng ahr-DEEN) with the garden

leis an bpáipéar (lesh un baw*-PAY*R) with the paper

leis an dteanga (lesh un DYANG-uh) with the tongue (or language)

"D" and "t" are not eclipsed by "leis an" as often as are the other letters above. "Leis an doras" and "leis an teanga" are common.


"Le" serves in many expressions in Irish. It commonly follows some important verbs, sometimes being used where English would use "to". Learn these expressions and verbs:

Dúirt séliomé(DOO-irt shay* luhm ay*), he said it to me.

Abair leis dul abhaile (AH-bir lesh duhl uh-VWAHL-e), tell him to go home.

Imigh leat (IM-ee lat), be off with you.

Dimigh séleis (DIM-ee shay* lesh), he departed (went off with himself).

Tig liom rince (tig luhm RINK-e), I can dance.

Níthig leat léamh (nee hig lat LAY*-uhv), you can't read.

An dtig leatéa dhéanamh? (un dig lat ay* uh YAY*N-uhv), can you do it?

Éist liom (ay*sht luhm), listen to me.

D'éist síliom (day*sht shee luhm), she listened to me.

Fan liom (fahn luhm), wait for me.

Dfhan séliom (dahn shay* luhm), he waited for me.

Níor fhan séleo (NEE-uhr ahn shay* loh), he didn't wait for them.


With each of the forms in the Vocabulary (except "imigh" and "d'imigh"), substitute: le Seán; leis an bhfear; leis an gcailín.

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