1 Finding oil and gas
2 Why do we have the crude oil and gas on tubing head?
3 Ideal gas law
Finding oil and gas
Drilling, as you know, is expensive. So oil companies plan carefully before they start drilling. First the scientists make 3D maps of the rock below the surface (figure 1) by the help of special computer programs, such as Surpac, Macromine, Datamine, Gems, Vulcan, and the famous for oil and gas sector – Petrel.
Figure 1 – 3D map of the rocks (examples)
Then they study these maps carefully. They look for possible oil traps (diagram 1)
Diagram 1: an oil trap
All oil and gas deposits are found in structural or stratigraphic traps.
Most oil and gas deposits are found in sandstones and coarse-grained limestones. A piece of sandstone or limestone is very much like a hard sponge, full of holes, but not compressible. These holes, or pores, can contain water or oil or gas, and the rock will be saturated with one of the three. The holes are much tinier than sponge holes, but they are still holes, and they are called porosity (figure 2).
Figure 2 - Oil Moving Through Pore Space In Sandstonereally.radioritual.ru referatxri.nugaspb.ru ufz.deutsch-service.ru referatstg.nugaspb.ru Главная Страница